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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-108

Retrospective study of epidemiology and clinical profile of oral cavity cancers at a tertiary care center

Department of Medical Oncology, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. T S Rahul
Department of Medical Oncology, RGGH, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_22_20

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Objective: A retrospective study of patients attended to the Rajiv Gandhi General Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai, during January 2013 to December 2016, was carried out to assess the epidemiology and the clinical profiles of oral cavity malignancy. Materials and methods: 794 patients who met the inclusion criteria of newly diagnosed patients with histopathologically confirmed oral cavity carcinoma, were taken for the retrospective study at Department of Medical Oncology. Outcome measures: The clinical profile, risk factors, status of presentation, staging and compliance with treatment were the outcome measures. Results & Discussion: The mean age of the study population was 53.04 years. Addiction to smoking was higher among all the male patients and the consumption of the tobacco was seen much more in the younger age group with decreasing tendency in the older age groups. Non-healing ulcer (83.2%) was the most common presenting complaint and the appearance of oral leukoplakia (29.9%) was more common in tobacco users and with increased frequency in the lower age group patients. The carcinoma tongue ant 2/3rd (42.2%) was the most common disease presentation, followed by buccal mucosa(25.5%), lower alveolus (15.7%), Floor of mouth (9%), lateral border of tongue (4.9%), lower and upper lip (2.26%) malignancies. 30 (3.77%) patients had instu lesion making stage 0 at presentation. Stage I 165(20.7%), stage II 150(18.9%), stage III 246(30.9%) stage IV 203(25.5%) and 9 patients showed distant metstasis at the time of presentation. Conclusion: Appearance of oral pre-malignat lesions were predominantly seen in younger adults especially those who are addicted to pan chewing. In the study population, there was a habit of keeping the pan contents in the oral cavity especially at sites such as bucco-gingival foldings and buccal mucosa are showing occurrence of site specific increase in pre-malignat lesions and cancers. The implementation of cost-effective policies to reduce alcohol use and tobacco use, such as increasing prices (through taxation), restricting marketing, and counter-advertising,could also help to prevent a large number of oral cavity cancers along with health education to reduce the global burden of disease.

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