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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 88-94

Cerebral palsy: Pediatric dentistry perspective – A review


1 Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S V S G Nirmala
Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_31_21

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Cerebral palsy is one of the most severely handicapping conditions affecting irregular gait childhood. This condition manifests itself as a number of neuromuscular dysfunctions and involves muscle weakness, stiffness, paralysis, poor balance irregular gait, and uncoordinated or involuntary movement. These children may have higher risk of caries due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene, intake of soft and cariogenic food, increased prevalence of enamel hypoplasic defects on the teeth. Periodontal diseases occur with great frequency, as they are unable to brush and floss adequately, they may also be on phenytoin to control seizure activity which is a cause of some degree of gingival hyperplasia. Malocclusion occurs twice, bruxism is commonly seen in athetoid type, and due to the nature of disorder, these children are more susceptible to trauma, especially of the maxillary anteriors. They have excessive drooling and difficulty in swallowing. Spastic children present with spastic tongue thrust, Class II DIV 2 malocclusion with unilateral crossbite. Athetoid patients presents with mouth breathing and anterior open bite. Many patients prefer to be treated in the wheel chair, which may be tipped back into the dentist's lap, head should be stabilized throughout the procedure, use physical restraints for control of failing extremities, mouth props, and finger splints can be used for control of involuntary jaw movements, avoid abrupt movements, lights and noises to minimize startle reflex reactions. Local anesthetic can be used with care, rubber dam can be used to protect the working area from hyper active tongue movements, and gauge shield should be used during extraction to avoid aspiration. Premedication can be used to reduce hypertonicity, involuntary movement, and anxiety; general anesthesia can be used as a last resort. This article discusses about etiology, clinical features along with management of children with cerebral palsy.


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