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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2022
Volume 12 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-41

Online since Saturday, July 16, 2022

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EDITORIALS  

From the office of the beau ideal p. 1

DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_15_22  
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Editorial message p. 2
C Shubha
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_16_22  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Recent advancements in materials in pediatric restorative dentistry Highly accessed article p. 3
Chaitali Hambire, Umesh Hambire
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_28_21  
The most common infectious disease affecting the children worldwide is dental caries. It affects children of all races, castes, and creeds. Refined diet and improper oral hygiene increase the risk of caries in children. Meticulous clinical examination and diagnosis of dental caries are an integral part of a comprehensive treatment plan. The factors to be considered include the developmental status of the dentition, caries-risk assessment, the patient's oral hygiene, anticipated parental compliance and likelihood of timely recall, and the child's ability to cooperate for treatment. Restorative science is undergoing great revolutions that are leading the humanity toward a new era of dentistry.
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Clinicopathological differences between lip cancers and tongue cancers p. 8
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, Alicia Almagro-Garcia
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_36_21  
Lip cancer is closely linked to chronic exposure to solar radiation, while tongue cancer, the most common intraoral neoplasm, is mainly related to tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. Lip cancer has a much better prognosis than tongue cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the differentiating features between squamous cell carcinomas located on both the lip and the tongue. A search for studies on lip cancer and tongue cancer was performed in the following databases: PubMed (MEDLINE and Cochrane Library), Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus. The estimated prevalence of lip and tongue cancers was calculated according to the random model of DerSimonian and Laird. For categorical outcomes, Pearson's Chi-square test was used with Fisher's exact test when required. Thirty-two studies were included in this review. Considering the whole oral tumor locations, the estimated prevalence of lip cancer was 23.43% and in tongue cancer, 27.58%. A greater number of lip cancers were found in males, were classified as T1, were well-differentiated tumors, and had a higher 5-year survival rate. In contrast, a greater number of tongue cancers were observed in younger patients, tobacco and/or alcohol users, presented lymph node metastases, and more advanced tumor stages. Although both tumors are located in the mouth, lip cancers and tongue cancers have different clinicopathological features and biological behaviors.
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Laser biomodulation in dentistry p. 15
N Nagammai
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_18_22  
The laser is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” After the discovery of laser in 1960, it was very well appreciated that laser therapy has the ability to reduce pain, inflammation, swelling, and also improve wound healing. The dentists are now provided with a wide variety of lasers of different wavelengths and so they readily choose according to their needs of treatment. Each of the wavelengths has specific laser-tissue interactions. One such laser-tissue interaction is called “soft-tissue laser therapy or biostimulation or biomodulation.” This laser uses the specific wavelength from visible red to near-visible red in the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 630 to 980 nm. Numerous researches on low-level laser therapy are documented in the literature over 30 years before. This review article gives an insight into the mechanism of action, its dosage, and emphasizes its application in dentistry.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of attitude and preparedness of dental students to treat patients suffering from infectious diseases p. 19
Santosh Mahajan, S Rehman, R Mahajan
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_4_22  
Background: Patients carrying serious infections always carry a high risk of transmission during dental treatment. Dentists by their positive attitude and level of preparedness can prevent the transmission of these infections in a dental setting. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study planned to evaluate the attitude and preparedness of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Baba Jaswant Singh Dental College, Hospital and Research Institute, Ludhiana, India, toward patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus during their dental treatment. The study material was a questionnaire consisting of questions from various validated questions from the literature. The data obtained from 464 students (94 males and 360 females) were tabulated and analyzed using “t”-test and “Chi-square” test. Results: Students showed passive attitude (attitude score < 75%) and poor preparedness with no difference with respect to dentistry year. Females revealed more preparedness, and it was significantly associated with their attitude (t-test, P = 0.007). Discussion: Unwillingness of the students to treat infected patients is attributable to their fear of being infected during treatment, lack of supporting staff, and unawareness of the importance of biomedical waste disposal and use of disposable instruments. Conclusions: The study clearly highlighted the need of teaching students about the transmission of these diseases and implementation of universal precautions at regular intervals to increase their moral and practical ability to handle such patients.
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Prevalence of oral lesions among coronavirus disease 2019 cohorts: A cross-sectional study p. 25
Sunil Lingaraj Ajagannanavar, DR Srinivas, R Pushpa
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_11_22  
Background: In early December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), considered as Pandemic has gained Public importance caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. World Health Organization declared the outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on January 30, 2020. Few cases have reported the presence of oral lesions among Covid Cohorts for which we considered it has a less explored area. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalance of oral lesions among Covid19 Inpatients in District Hospital, Shivamogga. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey will be conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among Covid19 Inpatients in District Hospital, Shivamogga, India. The Performa included information on socio-demographic details, habits (tobacco and alcohol), oral hygiene practices and presence and location of oral mucosal lesions according to World Health Organisation, 2013. Considering the prevalence of Oral lesions among Pilot Survey Sampling size will be determined. Informed consent would be obtained from patients and ethical approval from Institutional ethical board. Descriptive statistical analysis would be carried out and Chi-square test will be used for comparisons. Confidence level will be set at 95% and p value 5%, respectively. Results: A total of 248 In-patients with Covid -19 were included in the study. Almost half of the patients 127(51.2%) complained Aphthous-like oral ulcer, followed by Xerostomia 52(20.96%), herpes-like lesions 47(19%), candidiasis 44(18%), glossitis/depapillation 10(4%), geographic tongue 6 (2.41%), angular cheilitis 3 (1.2%), parotitis 2 (0.8%) Ulceration with ischemic necrosis of palate 11 (4.43%). Oral lesions were scattered throughout mouth in which majority was found in the tongue (35.4%) followed by sulcus (15%), Lips(11.6%), and commissures(10.8%). Conclusion: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 is the major public health burden in the world, along with systemic manifestations it is definitely found to have a significant effect on the oral health varying from small Aphthous like ulcers to necrosis of palate. Several attempts are done to integrate medical and dental services in different healthcare and public health settings to support populations with unmet oral health during this pandemic situation.
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Microbiological comparison of efficacy of two chewing gum on salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans count in caries active children – An in vivo study p. 29
Jaya Agali Ramachandra, Gayathri Gopinath
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_10_22  
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the efficacy of xylitol chewing gums and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) chewable tablet on Streptococcus mutans by microbiological culture method in caries-active children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 children were selected from two residential schools, situated in kumbalgodu, Bengaluru, aged between 5 and 8 years with DMFT/dmft index of 3–6. The children were randomly divided into two groups by lottery method, each consisting of 15 children per group. IgY chewable tablet – Group I (test group) and xylitol chewing gum – Group II (control group). The children were given IgY no decay chewable tablet and xylitol chewing gum, respectively, and were instructed to chew one pellet each two times a day after a meal for 30 days. Preintervention salivary samples were collected at baseline, 30 days after chewing gum use as postintervention sample, for microbiological analysis. Results: IgY no decay chewable tablet two times a day for 30 days can successfully reduce salivary S. mutans counts than the xylitol chewing gum group. Conclusion: This study concluded that IgY in the form of chewable tablet has shown a maximum beneficial effect against salivary S. mutans for children who are at high risk of caries than xylitol chewing gum.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Lithium disilicate (IPS” e.Max computer-aided design) veneers for the esthetic rehabilitation in a young adolescent p. 34
Rishi Tyagi, Namita Kalra, Amit Khatri, Padma Yangdol, Tavisha Goyal, Puja Sabherwal
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_5_22  
Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of enamel wherein the patients often present with esthetic concerns. Previously available approaches for the management of dental fluorosis included composite restoration, microabrasion, bleaching, resin infiltration and/or use of full crowns. For young permanent teeth, it is desirable to follow a treatment plan that efficiently addresses both anatomic and esthetic concerns. Keeping in mind, a minimally invasive approach, lithium disilicate in its modern formulations (IPSTM e.Max CAD) fabricates thin veneers with 0.1–0.7 mm thickness with greater fracture toughness and biaxial strength. Lithium disilicate has high esthetic properties, and the material requires minimal tooth preparation. The advent of newer technology has led to a period of evolution with esthetic dentistry leading the forefront. The present report elucidates a novel approach depicting the use of maximal esthetics (E-Max) lithium disilicate veneers in a young adolescent with moderate fluorosis to provide a minimally invasive esthetic outcome with 6 months' follow-up.
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An infected case of small dentigerous cyst on intraoral radiograph and orthopantomography p. 38
Manisha Singh, Anjana Bagewadi
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_29_21  
Dentigerous cyst is the second most common odontogenic cyst, which affects the jaws. It accounts for 15% of all true cysts in the jaws. This cyst is mostly associated with the crown of unerupted teeth involving crown of impacted mandibular third molars followed by maxillary canine and maxillary third molars. Dentigerous cysts can occur at any age, but the greatest incidence is in the second to fourth decades of life. Dentigerous cysts have the potential for attaining large size and tend to absorb roots of involved teeth. Dentigerous cysts have the potential to develop odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma and malignancies such as oral squamous cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The progressive nature of dentigerous cysts may show expansion and result in pathological fractures of jawbones. The early detection of this cyst decreases the severity of the disease. Here is a case report of an infected dentigerous cyst that was detected on intraoral radiograph and orthopantomography.
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